Turning the underutilized guyabano into a profitable product

 

Turning underutilized guayabano into profitable product

by Rena S. Hermoso

 

Guyabano or guayabano (Annona muricata Linn.) is rich in vitamin C, phosphorus and calcium. Its 70-percent edible portion contains 63 calories and sugar content ranges from 4 to 14 percent.

It used to be an underutilized crop before it was included in the Department of Agriculture-Regional Field Office (DA-RFO) CALABARZON's Research and Development Extension Agenda and Programs to address problems on production area, package of technology (POT), and development of value-adding technologies.

Funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research, the Quezon Agricultural Research and Experiment Station (QARES) implemented a project aimed to develop and commercialize products from guayabano for the farmers' associations of Dolores, and San Antonio, Quezon. "The utilization and production of A. muricata will not only provide health benefits [to the consumers] but also contribute to the economic growth of the farm household," said Dennis DL. Bihis, project leader and science research specialist at QARES.

QARES provided a nursery for the production of guayabano seedlings for sale and distribution to the project beneficiaries and other clients of the station. Around 5, 000 seedlings from the nursery were planted at the two project sites covering a total area of 23.5 hectares.

Most of the beneficiaries own the land where these seedlings were planted. While waiting for the trees to fruit, intercrops using high-value crops will be planted to provide beneficiaries with income. Aside from this, the beneficiaries will continuously produce plantings materials for sale and/or distribution to target sites.

A component of the project is the conduct of trainings, seminars, and other capability-building activities. QARES provided the beneficiaries with hands-on experience through Structured Learning Exercises.

According to Bihis, some members were trained in plant propagation and field management to enhance their knowledge of crop production while some were trained in product development processing.

The beneficiaries of the project are the San Antonio FBS and the Rural Improvement Club of Dolores, Quezon. Members of these farmers' associations were trained on POT of the crop and on value-adding technologies so they can continue implementing even after its completion, the technologies generated through the project.

Through the project, QARES was able to develop four products from guayabano: wine, nectar, juice, and soap.

To commercialize the guayabano products as well as the guayabano as a raw ingredient, QARES has been linking the farmers' associations to various end-users. They have tied-up with local tourism offices as well as with the members of the Quezon Herbal Program to supply guayabano leaves for tea and other herbal concoctions.

Through the project, a Livelihood Center in San Antonio was established to display and sell the guayabano products. These guayabano products are sold at agriculture trade fairs and exhibits.

“Hopefully, we can have the commercial production started on the first quarter of 2019,” ended Bihis. ###

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For more information:

Dennis DL. Bihis

Project Leader

DA-RFO 4A, QARES

phone: (042) 585 7101

email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Goat meat on-the-go

 

Goat meat on-the-go

 

by Ephraim John J. Gestupa

  

Filipinos have impeccable taste and it shows even to the simplest “pulutan.” In an occasion where eating isn’t even the main activity, the food still has to be delicious.

In Northern Luzon, a favorite partner for a round of drinks is chevon or goat’s meat dishes. Ask anyone from Ilocos Norte and they would tell you that no celebration is complete without papaitan, kaldereta, or kinilaw na kambing. It’s no wonder the Ilocos region is among the top producers of goat and goat-based products.

Because we live in such a fast-paced world, the locals who once enjoyed eating goat’s meat at home in the province may have likely moved to the city or even overseas, the laid back provincial lifestyle was traded in for a busy and frantic urban hustle.

What still remains is a longing for a taste of home. So the folks from Central Luzon, a region that also has a growing goat production industry, set out to bring beloved homemade goat dishes to the city.

According to Ms. Venus Quines from the Department of Food Science and Technology of Central Luzon State University (CLSU), goat’s meat may be popular among those who eat it as pulutan, but as processed, ready-to-eat products, such form has not yet been properly developed. CLSU has therefore placed themselves to be among the universities at the forefront of further realizing the profitability of chevon through product development. “Together we can claim na sa goat, may kita,” said Ms. Quines.

This year, CLSU unveiled three new and innovative chevon-based products through a research initiative funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) through its National Technology Commercialization Program titled “Enhancement if Innovative Chevon-Based Products Towards Commercialization.”

CLSU saw that the time was ripe to bring chevon-based products not only to the local market but also internationally. Both Central Luzon and Northern Luzon had earlier began improving the practice of goat-raising through the research and development (R&D) efforts done by BAR.

According to Dr. Alma De Leon from the Department of Food Science and Technology in CLSU’s College of Home Science and Industry, “some of CLSU’s R&D activities supported by DA to improve goat production are the breed improvement through the three-way-cross goats and mutton commercialization.”  Now that the supplies of goat’s meat were improved it was only natural to begin building product-based enterprises.

Aside from the development of local goat production Central Luzon, another reason why CLSU ventured into chevon food processing is the increasing awareness of consumers to be more health conscious. When compared to traditional protein sources such as poultry, pork, or beef, goat meat has the lowest total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Chevon also contains higher levels of iron and protein compared to equal portions of other cooked meat.

CLSU’s project developed the following products: Instant chevon papaitan, chevon jerky which they branded as bak-wa, and Instant kapukan. From the recipe, to the business mode, to consumer feedback, to the packaging, CLSU’s project identified and enhanced the production process of the ready-to-eat chevon products.

Earlier on during the study, CLSU conducted a survey in 10 towns within Nueva Ecija through self-administered questionnaires. The survey helped determine the most popular chevon dishes among consumers as well as served relevant baseline information for the university to come up with a marketing strategy. Based on the results of the study, the three most popular dishes were papaitan, kapukan, and caldereta.

Prototypes of these products were then made as part of the undergraduate thesis of the BS in Food Technology students.  They used various kitchen recipes in cooking these dishes for the initial formulations and developed specific protocols to stabilize the products.  Resulting prototypes were then subjected to consumer testing and the most acceptable ones were used in the pilot production operation of the study.       

Instant papaitan is a take-off from the traditional papaitan which is a native delicacy from Northern Luzon. The chevon meat is dehydrated and placed inside a sealed container for longer shelf life that lasts for six months. The spices and seasoning have already been incorporated to the chevon bits and all one needs to do is boil the dehydrated chevon bits for 10 minutes.

Instant kapukan follows a similar concept but the goat’s meat for this particular dish is tenderized and grilled goat’s skin. Kapukan is a salad (ceviche) while papaitan is a stew.  Both are sour but papaitan has bitter notes in its taste. Instant kapukan can be conveniently consumed by boiling the dehydrated chevon skin bits for 10 minutes and then drained.  After which it is spiked with mixture calamansi and ginger juice, finely chopped dehydrated onions, bell pepper and chili pepper which are also found in the packaging container.

Probably the most unique of the bunch is the chevon jerky or bak-wa. Bak-wa is a Chinese meat snack made up of the ground goat’s meat spiced with salt and chilli, marinated for two days, made flat against a sheet tray, dried and cut to pieces around an inch wide. After drying, staff at CLSU’s food laboratory would coat the flattened chevon first in mango puree before packaging them in vacuum sealed ziplock containers that keep the products fresh for six months. One just has to pop them out and eat the chevon jerky off its packaging, no cooking needed.

CLSU is currently working on developing a fourth instant chevon dish. “We have come up with the prototype of binalot na kalderetang kambing.  However, the vacuum packed chevon binalot needs to be packed and sterilized in a food processing facility in Metro Manila. Due to the distance of our University to the food processing facility, the team decided to process vacuum-packed restructured chevon tapa instead,” explained Dr. De Leon.

CLSU, through its Technology Transfer Office headed by Dr. Pablo Rafael, is offering the technology they have developed in processing instant-chevon products to private individuals who are interested in starting a business on chevon products.

As of July of 2018, CLSU has been selling their instant chevon products on campus: at Dairy Box located at the PCC Compound and at U-Mart. Papaitan and kapukan are sold at Php150.00/ 50 gram pack while bak-kwa is being sold at Php 250.00/100 gram pack.

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For more information:

Dr. Alma A. De Leon

College of Home Science and Industry

Central Luzon State University

Science City of Muñoz
Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Phone: +63 (044) 456 7212

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Cacao: Food of the gods turned into wine

DSCF2697Famous for being processed into chocolates, Theobroma cacao which literally means “food of the gods” started as a backyard industry in Region 4A.

“Ang cacao ay tinatanmin lang sa mga baku-bakuran at hindi ito isang pormal na industriya noong nakaraan,” according to Mr. Dennis Bihis, senior research specialist from the Quezon Agricultural Research and Experiment Station (QARES) of the Department of Agriculture-Regional Field Office (DA-RFO) 4A. He added, “ang produksyon ng cacao ay sinimulang umangat noong 2007. Kung [kailan] nagkaroon na ng mga programa upang magpatanim ng mas marami pang cacao at gawin pormal na industriya.”

The development of the cacao industry in the region started to grow to supply for the country’s production shortage. This led to the conduct of an agribusiness development project on cacao led by DA-QARES and funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research under its National Technology Commercialization Program. He shared, “Nagkaroon kami ng proyekto sa cacao, iyong Agribusiness Development Project. Upang magkaroon tayo ng mga pananim at matulungan natin ang mga magsasaka sa teknolohiya ng pagpaparami.”

The success of this project was followed through by another project titled, “Cacao Commercialization in the Province of Quezon.” According to Mr. Bihis, project leader, “iyong second project natin ay ginawa natin upang palawakin iyong taniman ng cacao. Pangalawa, bigyan natin ng pagsasanay ang mga magsasaka upang mapaayos ang produksyon nito at hindi lang maging backyard kundi maging commercial iyong level ng produksyon. Pangatlo, mag-develop din ng mga produkto mula sa mga buto ng cacao. At pang-apat ay magkaroon ng promal na tie-up sa mga merkado.”

As part of the project, different product lines (i.e. table, cacao soap, cacao wine) were developed to provide farmers an additional source of income.

The cacao wine, as shared by Mr. Bihis, was developed “kasi masyado ng saturated ang merkado ng mga sabon, tableya. So kailangan natin ng ibang produkto na pwedeng pagkakitaan ng ating beneficiaries.” After developing the product, QARES submitted it for analysis and packaging. After which, the technology on cacao wine was disseminated to various associations and beneficiary groups including the Cacao Farmers’ Association of San Antonio, Quezon; and the Laguna Cacao Farmers Association, which were beneficiaries of the projects.

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Cacao wine goes to Madrid Fusión Manila

On the second day of the Madrid Fusión Manila (MFM) 2017, the cacao wine of QARES was featured in one of the food presentations during the Regional Lunch sponsored by DA. Madrid Fusión, an international culinary event held yearly in Spain, is where international culinary legends and rising stars showcase new techniques and cutting-edge innovations, while paying tribute to culinary traditions from where these contemporary cuisines have sprung. Arguably, the MFM 2017 is one of the better arenas where local ingredients, products, and gastronomy talent can be featured and promoted as it has always been one of the biggest culinary events in the world.

In her creation dubbed as “A Toast to Chocolate” during the MFM 2017, Ms. Pamela Lim Cinco of Risa Chocolates presented the cacao wine topped with white chocolate disc with cacao nibs served with their white chocolate truffle with dark chocolate ganache and milk butter from carabao. With the theme of the Regional Lunch being “Nose-To-Tail,” Ms. Cinco said that “[she] wanted to show how the different parts of the cacao fruit can be consumed and do not need to be thrown out.” “In addition to our chocolates which are mostly made from the seeds or the cacao beans, the cacao wine is a perfect example because it uses the pulp of the cacao which is usually just absorbed by the cacao bean or is dried up by the sun,” she added.

The cacao wine, according to Ms. Cinco, is “light and delicious.” She also added that “it reminds [her] of young champagne with notes of sweet cacao fruit and vanilla.” Further, Ms. Cinco said that “[i]f marketed well, the selling points of the cacao wine are (1) its unique origin—that it comes from the pulp. If I am not mistaken, this is the first cacao wine in the world that is made from the pulp. Most cacao wines are wines that have been infused with either cacao beans or chocolate; (2) its delicious taste–it is a good option for a dessert wine; and, that (3) it is made by our local farmers.” “Grape farmers have their own wine. Now, our local cacao farmers make cacao wine. How wonderful is that!” ended Ms. Cinco.

Ms. Cinco learned the existence of the DA-QARES cacao wine when she visited Mr. Godofredo Dereza (or Mang Fred for short), a cacao farmer from Nagcarlan, Laguna. “He showed me the cacao wine that Mr. Bihis of DA-QARES taught and trained them to make,” she added. According to Mr. Bihis, “Mang Fred was the president of Laguna Cacao Farmers’ Association (LACAFA) when they approached us for cacao processing technologies. They adopted the technologies and are producing cacao wine.” “Currently, [he] is the president of Samahan ng Magsasaka ng Barangay Banilad, member of LACAFA and Cacao Farmer’s Association of Nagcarlan (CFAN). He’s still producing cacao wine together with other members of CFAN,” added Mr. Bihis.

The Cacao Farmers’ Association of San Antonio, Quezon are now producing cacao wines in commercial scale. The wines are available at 375mL bottles and sold for Php350 at Quezon’s BEST, Tiaong and Tiaong Tourism. “Ngayon ang pinakamalaking pinagbebentahan ng cacao wine natin ay sa TienDA na ginagawa ng Department of Agriculture,” concluded Mr. Bihis. ###Rena S. Hermoso

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For more information:
Mr. Dennis DL. Bihis
Science Research Specialist II/ 
Research Coordinator
Quezon Agricultural Research and Experiment Station
Department of Agriculture 4A
Lagalag, Tiaong, Quezon
Tel/Fax no. (042) 585 7101
Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ice cream cone made from Adlay

 

Ice cream cone made from Adlay

by Leoveliza C. Fontanil

 

Ice cream is one of the most popular summertime cravings. It is always best served in a cone rather in a cup. Cones are designed to complement the sweet, creamy taste of ice cream. One is better fulfilled if after consuming the ice cream, one is treated to a crispy crunch of sugar cone.

As ice creams become more elaborate, one can choose to have chocolate, nuts, honeycomb or colored sprinkles as decorations, adding a little extra excitement, and giving a much better “wow” of flavor to the whole ice cream eating experience.

An ice cream cone or “apa” in Tagalog, is a dry, cone-shaped pastry, usually made of wafer similar in texture to a waffle, which enables ice cream to be held and eaten without a bowl or spoon.

Nowadays, there are many types of cones to choose from in the market. Various types of commercially available cones include cake cones, sugar cones, waffle cones, and pretzel cones. Most of them are now creating much more appeal in the market as they value the uses of each cone type with the different variations, uniqueness, and special features.

But have you ever heard of sweet cone made from Adlay?

 

How it all started

As one of the active implementers of research activities on adlay, the Department of Agriculture-Regional Field Office (DA-RFO) 4B (MIMAROPA) has been consistent in developing technologies and carrying out initiatives that will further improve and promote the adlay crop. One of its most notable feats is a product called Adlay Sweet Cone.

Adlay, known as a healthy, versatile food ingredient, can be ground into flour and used to make breads, pastas, porridge, and among others just like rice. It has a good eating quality, revealing that adlay grains can also provide essential nutrients needed by the body. 

The DA-MIMAROPA, led by Ms. Lorena B. Mendoza, also the Adlay focal person, was on its track in showcasing techniques on how to prepare various affordable, nutritious, and palatable adlay delicacies.

“Marami na kaming nagawang products out of adlay, katulad ng adlay broas, cookies, kalamay, pandesal, turones de adlay, arrozcaldo, champorado, patiktik, sinukmani, polvoron, noodles, at shing-aling,” Mendoza said. “Nakagawa na rin kami ng adlay softy ice cream, naisip namin ang ka-partner ng ice cream ay apa, at doon nga pumasok yong adlay sweet cone,” she added.

DA-MIMAROPA developed various products because they wanted to make unique products that are not yet done by other regions. They are always looking for the other potentials of crop. “Kaya sa tuwing makakakita kami ng tindahan or pasalubong center ay lagi kaming nagtitingin ng mga products na pwede magawa out of adlay at iyon ang bigla naming naisip,” she revealed.

It was during the 12th Agriculture and Fisheries Technology Forum and Product Exhibition (NTF) held at SM Megamall, Mandaluyong City that the Adlay Sweet Cone was first exhibited. “At that time, eight packs of Adlay Sweet Cone lang ang aming nagawa at nang nakita ito ng Mama Sita’s, binili nila lahat ang display namin, at simula noon ay nag-oorder na sila sa tuwing may event,” Mendoza said.

When it comes to taste, Mendoza shared that the Adlay Sweet Cone is thicker, crispy, and has a little bit lumpy texture as one chews itproviding an interesting twist to the customers' delight. Even if eaten alone, Adlay Sweet Coneis more delicious compared to other commercially available cones in the market. “Marami nang nakapag-try ng aming adlay sweet cone at laging may product display kami sa tuwing may invitation. At humanga talaga sila na yong adlay flour pala ay nagagawang adlay sweet cone at mas masarap daw sa karaniwang cone,” she added. The product shelf-life of the product can reach up to four months with proper keeping at the storage.

Today, Mendoza said that the product has made many orders from Mama Sita’s and the DA-RFO 5 has also been ordering their products to complement in the Bicol region’s bread fruit or rimas ice cream.

“Sa ngayon plano naming magkaroon ng information caravan, una sa area namin to promote the product. We also prospect na magkaroon kami ng ugnayan sa DA-AMAD,” she added.

The DA-MIMAROPA envisioned a partnership with the DA-Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Division (AMAD) to give them important information on market development services, assist them in identifying potential market linkages, private adopters, and market matching activities so that they are able to develop an agricultural product market for the Adlay Sweet Cone.

 

Comparing it to the commercially-available cones

Commercial cones are mostly blended with lots of sugars, wheat flour, and tapioca flour (a starch from cassava plant). Other than having one percent of the amount of iron recommended daily, there is no nutritional benefit in having an ice cream cone. Based on its percent daily values and nutrition facts by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), 100 grams of servings of any type of commercial cones has a total of 417 calories percent daily values.

A typical cone will net around 10 grams of sugar which is almost 50 percent of the recommended daily intake. Consuming high amounts of sugar can lead to weight gain, diabetes, and increased production of ghrelin - a hunger hormone that tells the body that we are still hungry so you may want to have a second serving.  

Aside from sugar, tapioca can cause certain concerns as well. Tapioca naturally produces cyanide. While the manufacturing process most likely gets rid of the cyanide, there is still a risk, no matter how small, that eating tapioca or anything with tapioca in it could introduce cyanide into the body. Products that have tapioca can enjoy every once in a while without worry, but real problems can quickly arise when you are consuming multiple per day.

Unlike typical commercial cones, the Adlay Sweet Cone is made from brown sugar, water, and wheat flour, and instead of using tapioca flour, adlay grain flour is being used.

Adlay grain is highly nutritious. According to a chemical analysis also provided by the FNRI, a 100-gram serving of adlay is superior in terms of its food energy content (365kcal), rich in carbohydrate content (73.9 g), protein (12.8 g), and fat (1.0 g). It is also packed with other minerals including calcium (25 mg), phosphorus (43.5 mg), iron (5 mg), niacin (4.3 mg), (0.28 mg), and riboflavin (0.19 mg), and has a high fiber that  shows promising results in anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and blood sugar-lowering properties for optimum health of the human body.

That is why consuming a piece of Adlay Sweet Cone is considered a sweet treat much better than eating the usual, commercially-available ice cream cone.

A year after DA-MIMAROPA first introduced Adlay Sweet Cone into the public; they showcased it again during the 13th NTF hailing it as one of the winners of the best innovative products. ###

 

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For more information:

Ms. Lorena B. Mendoza

Adlay Focal Person

DA- Regional Field Office 4B (MIMAROPA)

Bacenaga, Naujan Oriental Mindoro

Phone: 0917-539-9975

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Feeding your skin with coffee

DSC 0042Imagine the smell of roasted fine ground coffee beans, brewed and poured in a cup. Now scrap that and imagine the same freshly-roasted ground coffee being slathered on the face and the body as part of a beauty regimen. The lush coffee aroma does not only make the skin smell amazing, it also has the ability to exfoliate leaving the skin polish as well.

Packaged and bottled into a two-in-one wonder product called “Coffee Body Scrub and Massage Cream”— a result of years of study led by Dr. Estela Taño of the Green Rescue Organic Association, Incorporated (GRO, Inc.).

This research initiative was part of the outputs of a project titled, “Promotion of Organic Coffee and Cacao under Coconut in Candelaria, Quezon” implemented by the Quezon Agricultural Research and Experiment Station (QARES) in Tiaong, Quezon in 2011-2014. Funded by the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR), under its National Technology Commercialization Program (NTCP), the project aimed to promote organic production technology for coffee and cacao under coconut plantation.

One of the activities undertaken under the project was product development using materials from organic plantations and marketing of these farm products. “Value-adding activities and establishing new markets were implemented to increase people’s income, divert them from uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources in the area and to show them that they do not have to migrate in search of better jobs once enterprises have been put in place,” explained Dr. Taño.

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Public appearance

The Coffee Body Scrub and Massage Cream was first introduced by the group of Dr. Taño in 2015. It was one of the featured products of GRO, Inc. at their booth during the 11th Agriculture and Fisheries Technology Forum and Product Exhibition (NTF) on 7-9 August 2015 at SM Megamall, Mandaluyong City. The event was organized and spearheaded by BAR in support to the funded researches implemented by partner-institutions all over the country.

The product took the limelight further when it won the second prize for the “Best New Product Award” during the 2015 NTF. All the entries for that year were evaluated based on creativity and uniqueness, relevance to food security, health and wellness, good product attributes, packaging and labeling, and market potential and competitiveness.

The product was adjudged as a winner because the product provided a good option for coffee farmers in terms of marketability, especially in cases when the price of coffee is low. According to the judges, “Tuloy-tuloy lang ang production nila ng kape kahit mababa ang presyo ng bentahan, kasi sure sila na may market pa rin, at equally-competitive prices kahit papano.”

According to Dr. Taño, the product is being marketed under the trademark Masalukot, named after a mountain in Candelaria, Quezon Province, which was also the site of the project. The Masalukot Black Gold Coffee Body Scrub and Massage Cream comes in two sizes: small (120ml) and big (250ml) which are sold for Php199 and Php399, respectively.

All-natural body scrub and massage cream

“Who would want to rub chemicals on their skin when there is an all-natural alternative?” asked Dr. Taño to the attendees during the BAR Seminar Series on 23 June 2016 wherein “Coffee Body Scrub and Massage Cream in One” was one of the two featured topics.

According to the presentation of Dr. Taño, “this new coffee body scrub uses all-natural ingredients not found in ordinary chemical-based body scrub and exfoliators.”

When asked why a coffee body scrub and massage cream in one, she cited [at least] five benefits of the products. “Because it has exfoliating and anti-inflammatory properties, temporary cellulite reduction effect, improves blood circulation, reduces eye puffiness and makes skin super smooth and clean.”

She added that aside from being an “amazing exfoliant”, the product itself has caffeine, an effective stimulant when consumed as beverage but has “lesser known benefits” when it comes to its effects when applied on the skin.

“Caffeine helps tighten the skin and helps reduce cellulite. When applied under and around the eyes, it can minimize the appearance of puffy eyes because caffeine restricts blood vessels, reduces swelling and inflammation. It can also help treat non-hereditary dark circles under the eyes,” she explained.

She added that “caffeine is loaded with antioxidants which help fight premature skin aging, wrinkles, sun spots and fine lines.”

However, she mentioned that not all coffee scrubs are created equal since according to her, the caffeine content of the coffee scrub is an important factor. “Some coffee scrubs use recycled brewed coffee grounds which means much of the caffeine content is depleted. This new coffee body scrub is made from the finest roasted ground beans ever thus, cannot be compared with any other known body scrub,” she explained.

Do-It-Yourself body scrub and massage cream

During the seminar, Dr. Taño demonstrated how an individual can prepare the product even at the comfort of their own homes. Among the basic materials were: 150 grams roasted fine ground coffee beans, 300 ml Virgin Coconut Oil, and 5 grams beeswax.

“Heat all together under low fire for about 30 to 45 minutes. Stir occasionally. Let it cool. Pour in suitable containers and label,” she methodically explained.

She also demonstrated how the product is used. “First, shake the bottle, put drops of the coffee scrub on the skin. Rub gently on the skin. Dead skin cells and dirt will fall off. Continue scrubbing until the skin is clean and smooth.” She also cautioned users that “they may experience perspiring indicating that the skin pores had been opened, just dry with a towel.” ###Rita T. dela Cruz

Contact details:
Dr. Estela C. Taño
Technical Consultant
Green Rescue Organic Association, Inc.
Tiaong, Quezon
Mobile: 0925-886-2765
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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